TALK the TALK
|A clause in the law that directs the referee to refrain from stopping play for a foul if a stoppage would benefit the team that committed the violation.|
|The pass that leads to the goal. It's as important as the goal itself.|
|Any player on the team that has possession of the ball.|
|The team that has possession of the ball.|
|A player that has possession of the ball.|
|Player focuses solely on the ball and loses sight of the opponent he or she is supposed to mark.|
|To get the ball through or around an opponent by dribbling or shooting.|
|Bicycle kick or Scissors kick:|
|When a player kicks the ball in mid-air backwards and over his/her own head, usually making contact above waist level; an acrobatic shot.|
|The opposite side of a defender to the ball.|
|When a team quickly advances the ball down the field in an attempt to get its players near the opponent's goal before the defenders have a chance to retreat.|
|When an attacker with the ball approaches the goal undefended; this exciting play pits a sole attacker against the goalkeeper in a one-on-one.|
|Every time you play an international match for your country, you are credited with a cap. Kristine Lilly has more caps than any man or woman in the history of soccer.|
|Carrying the ball:|
|A foul called on a goalkeeper when he takes more than 4 steps while holding or bouncing the ball.|
|A circular marking with a 10-yard radius in the center of the field from which kickoffs are taken to start or restart the game.|
|A pass from a player located near the sideline towards the middle of the field; used to get the ball closer to the front of the goal.|
|A small circular mark inside the center circle that denotes the center of the field from which kickoffs are taken to start or restart the game.|
|Movement used to create space between the player with the ball and the marking opponent.|
|Making a movement in one direction, stopping, and then moving off in the opposite direction.|
|When a player uses his chest to slow down and control a ball in the air.|
|A pass lofted into the air from a player to a teammate.|
|A kick lofted into the air to try to sail the ball over the goalkeeper's head and still make it under the crossbar into the goal.|
|The act of moving the ball out from within scoring range. A defensive measure.|
|The metal, plastic or rubber points in the bottom of a soccer/football shoe used to provide a player with traction.|
|Control of the ball by withdrawing the surface in contact with the ball on impact, e.g. the thigh.|
|Control of the ball with the use of a rigid surface, e.g. the sole of the boot.|
|The surface of the body in contact with the ball to bring the ball under control.|
|The portion of practice devoted to stretching muscles and returning body functions to their normal state.|
|A quarter-circle with a radius of 1 yard located at each of the 4 corners of the field.|
|The flag located at each of the 4 corners of the field.|
|A direct free kick taken by the attacking team from the one yard arc at the corner of field.|
|An attack launched by a defending team soon after it regains possession of the ball.|
|Defensive support. To take a position close to your opponent so as to challenge his/her efforts.|
|Usually applied in the attacking third of the field to a pass played well infield from the touch-line and diagonally forward from right to left or left to right.|
|A pass made to the area, usually beyond the post, farthest from the point from which the ball was kicked.|
|Cross, flank (wing):|
|A pass made from near to a touch-line, in the attacking third of the field, to an area near to the goal.|
|64% of all goals from crosses are scored by headers.|
|A pass made to the area directly in front of the goal and some six to twelve yards from the goal-line.|
|A pass made to the area four to six yards infield from the post nearest to the point from which the ball was kicked.|
|The horizontal beam that forms the top of a goal and sits on top of the two posts; it is 24 feet long and supported 8 feet above the ground.|
|Crosses, prime target area:|
|4 out 5 goals are scored from crosses into the prime target area.|
|Cut down the angle:|
|When the goalie comes out of the goal several feet to make himself closer and larger to an attacker, leaving the attacker less net to shoot at.|
|When a player attempts a play that the referee considers dangerous to that player or others, such as trying to kick the ball out of the goalie's hands, even if no contact is made.|
|Defender, committing the:|
|Attracting the exclusive attention of a defender by moving towards him with or without the ball.|
|The players on the team that does not have possession of the ball.|
|The team that does not have possession of the ball.|
|Defense, back of the:|
|The space between the goalkeeper and the defender nearest to him.|
|A team's function of preventing the opposition from scoring.|
|When one or more defenders closely mark a ball carrier to harass him into losing the ball.|
|The ricochet of a ball after it hits a player.|
|Direct free kick:|
|A restart situation that can be scored directly by the shooter.|
|Concealing one's intentions by pretending to do one thing and then doing something else.|
|Acrobatic skill used to score goals off low crosses in the goal area.|
|A game that ends with a tied score.|
|Applied to an attacker taking the ball past an opponent.|
|A player who advances the ball while controlling it with his feet.|
|A way of moving the ball along the ground by using the feet while keeping the ball under player's control.|
|A method of restarting a game where the referee drops the ball. The ball must hit the ground.|
|When a goalie drops the ball from his hands and kicks it before it hits the ground.|
|Stepping over the ball and letting it roll past you to a teammate, or applied in dribbling to feinting to move in one direction, to unbalancing an opponent, before moving away in a different direction.|
|Fake as if you're going to trap the ball or kick it, but instead let it roll between your legs or by you and (ideally) on to a teammate. This can make your opponent look foolish-hence the name.|
|The goalpost more distant from the ball position.|
|Feints or Fakes:|
|Body movements designed to unbalance an opponent, or a deceptive movement which can be applied with or without the ball, e.g. feinting to kick the ball, or feinting to move in one direction.|
|The rectangular area where football/soccer matches are played.|
|Federation Internationale de Football Association - the official governing body of international football since 1904 which established the World Cup tournament; helps set and revise laws of the game.|
|Flank (wing), attacking third:|
|Cross the ball early from the flank (wing) in to the prime target area.|
|The area of the field within fifteen yards or so of the touch-lines.|
|Players attacking or defending in straight line across the field.|
|A player's use of his head to deflect the ball.|
|Flight, line of:|
|Applied to the trajectory of the ball.|
|A player's use of the bottom or sides of his/her shoe to control a rolling or low-bouncing ball.|
|Name for soccer everywhere in the world.|
|3-3-4: a formation that consists of 3
defenders, 3 midfielders and 4 forwards.
4-2-4: a formation that consists of 4 defenders, 2 midfielders and 4 forwards.
4-3-3: a formation that consists of 4 defenders, 3 midfielders and 3 forwards.
4-4-2: a formation that consists of 4 defenders, 4 midfielders and 2 forwards.
5-3-2: a formation that consists of 5 defenders, 3 midfielders and 2 forwards.
|27% of all goals are from long forward passes.|
|Forward runs. (objective):|
|1. Make forward runs as direct and
quick as possible.
2. The attacker team must gain entry into the attacking third of the field with each attack.
3. In the attacking third, retain the momentum by passing, crossing, dribbling or shooting.
4. In the attacking third, if there is an opportunity or if there is any doubt at all, shoot!
5. Forward runs down the flank, if there is space to cross the ball, do so early and preferably to the back of the defense.
|A violation of the laws for which an official assesses a free kick.|
|A kick awarded to a players team for a foul committed by the opposition; the player kicks a stationary ball without any opposing players within 10 yards of the ball.|
|Shooting a ball directly out of the air.|
|When the ball passes completely over the goal line and under cross bar, one point is scored per goal.|
|Goal area (Goalie box):|
|The rectangular area 20 yards wide by 6 yards deep in front of each goal.|
|A type of restart where the ball is kicked from inside the goal area; awarded to the defending team when a ball that crossed the goal line was last touched by a player on the attacking team.|
|The field boundary running along its width at each end; also called the end line; runs right across the front of the goal.|
|Goal side of the ball:|
|A position between the ball and the goal one is defending.|
|Goal side position:|
|Correct position of a defender when marking an opponent.|
|Goal, mid-goal area:|
|An area in front of the goal and six to twelve yards out from the goal-line.|
|5% of all goals are one-on-one against the goalkeeper.|
|Under a relatively new rule for FIFA championships, it is the first goal in sudden-death overtime, giving the scoring team the victory.|
|1) Striking a dropping ball at the moment it hits ground. 2) To kick the ball the instant after it touches the ground. 3) Kicking the ball on the short hop.|
|The intermission between the 2 periods or halves of a game.|
|A foul where a player touches the ball with his hand or arm; the opposing team is awarded a direct free kick.|
|3 or more goals scored in a game by a single player.|
|The striking of a ball in the air by a player's head.|
|22% of all goals are from headers.|
|An act of directing the ball with any part of your forehead.|
|When a ball is within the boundaries of the field, having not completely crossed a sideline or goal line.|
|When a ball is within the boundaries of the field and play has not been stopped by the referee.|
|In the attacking third:|
|Once the team has the ball in the attacking third of the field, the attacker must try and keep it there by making it as hard as possible for the defenders to clear the ball.|
|Indirect free kick:|
|A restart situation which will not score a goal unless touched or played by one other player before going into the goal.|
|Time added to the end of any period according to the referee's judgment of time lost due to player injuries or intentional stalling by a team.|
|A straight shot taken with the instep of a player's foot; usually the most powerful and accurate of shots.|
|The upper surface of the foot or boot, e.g. the laces.|
|Method of goalkeeper distribution used to distribute the ball over distances of 40 or more yards.|
|A way of covering the man with the ball by feinting without committing yourself.|
|Keep your shape:|
|Maintain positional discipline on defense so that you don't leave gaps for the other team to attack. If you have too many players forward, or too many on one side of the field, you have lost your shape.|
|The method of starting a game or restarting it after each goal.|
|Line of recovery:|
|The path a defender takes when running back towards his/her goal to get on the goal side of the ball.|
|Line of retreat:|
|The path a defender takes when moving back towards his/her goal from a position on the goal side of the ball.|
|A powerful kick with the instep through the bottom half of the ball.|
|Long power shots (outside the penalty-area):|
|The shot may score direct or be deflected by a player into the goal. The goalkeeper may not see the shot through a crowd of players. Even if the goalkeeper makes a save, the goalkeeper may not be able to hold on to the ball or push it out for a corner, and the attacker may have a simple tap-in.|
|Adopt a position, in relation to an opponent, which enables a player either to prevent the opponent from receiving the ball or, at least, to challenge for the ball.|
|Marking a particular opponent in all the important defensive areas of the field.|
|A soccer/football game.|
|Midfield line or center line:|
|A line that divides the field in half along its width.|
|A player who links the defenders with the attackers and contributes to both attack and defense.|
|Moves that start in the attacking third:|
|53% of all goals come from moves that start in the attacking third of the field.|
|The goal post closer to the ball position.|
|Occurs when you have more players than the opponent in the attacking or defensive third. You always want to be numbers up on both ends of the field. That's why you have to do a lot of running in soccer.|
|Dribble the bal through an opponent's legs and collect it on the other side. Soccer's equivalent to an "in your face" slam dunk!|
|When a defensive player, instead of going after the ball, uses his body to prevent an offensive player from playing it.|
|Official game clock:|
|The clock that the referee carries with him on the field so he can signal when each half is over; does not stop during the game, even when play does.|
|The referee and 2 assistant referees who work together to make sure the game is played according to the laws of game; responsible for stopping and restarting play, keeping track of the score and the time remaining and citing violations of the laws, called fouls; they wear uniforms that distinguish them from the players on both teams.|
|Off-side, can not be declared off-side:|
|A player can not be declared off-side by the referee if he receives the ball direct from a goal kick, a corner kick or a throw in.|
|A situation in which an attacker positioned in the opponents' half of the field does not have two opponents between him or herself and the goal at the moment the ball is played to him or her.|
|Describes a team that does not have possession of the ball.|
|Describes a team in possession of the ball.|
|One touch soccer:|
|Interpassing among teammates without stopping the ball.|
|72% of all goals are from one touch.|
|Out of bounds:|
|When a ball is outside the boundaries of the field, having completely crossed a sideline or goal line.|
|Out of play:|
|When a ball is outside the boundaries of the field (pitch) or play has been stopped by the referee.|
|Outside the penalty area:|
|16% of all goals are from outside the penalty area.|
|A tactic used to move defenders and midfielders into attacking positions.|
|When a player making the run overtakes his/her teammate with the ball. They can run inside or outside of their teammate, and it usually happens on the flanks (wings).|
|Ouch! It's kicking or deflecting a ball into your own net. It happens, but just forget about it and try to get one back at the other end.|
|A pass made by a stabbing action of the kicking foot to the bottom part of the ball to achieve a steep trajectory and vicious back spin on the ball.|
|A pass made by an outward rotation of the kicking foot, contact on the ball being made with the outside of the foot.|
|A pass made by the kicking foot making contact with the ball at the moment the ball touches the ground.|
|A pass made with the inside of the kicking foot.|
|A pass made by imparting spin to the ball, thereby causing it to swerve from either right to left or left to right. Which way the ball swerves depends on whether contact with the ball is made with the outside or the inside of the kicking foot.|
|A pass made before the ball touches the ground.|
|When a player kicks the ball to his teammate.|
|A circular arc whose center is the penalty spot and extends from the top of the penalty area; designates an area that opposing players are not allowed to enter prior to a penalty kick.|
|Penalty box or area:|
|The 18 x 44 yard lined area around the goal that should be ruled by the goalkeeper. It's the only area on the field in which the goalkeeper can touch the ball with his/her hands.|
|Penalty kick or shot (PK):|
|The result of a direct foul committed by a defender within his or her penalty area. Everyone except the kicker and the goalkeeper must be outside the penalty box.|
|The small circular spot located 12 yards in front of the center of the goal line from which all penalty kicks are taken; positioned at the center of the penalty arc.|
|Soccer games are played on the pitch (field).|
|A term used by referees to indicate that no foul or stoppage is to be called; used by referees when applying the Advantage Law.|
|Applying an artificial restriction, e.g. all players must pass the ball on the first touch.|
|Applied to the movements of two attacking players moving in opposite directions past each other. These movements are usually made with the ball but can also be made without it.|
|Passing the ball first time, i.e. without controlling the ball.|
|A method of coaching which allows players to create movements without opposition.|
|Applied to a defending player attempting to dispossess an attacking player with the ball.|
|Applied to a defending player who is assisting the challenging player by adopting a position which will enable him/her to challenge if the challenger is beaten.|
|Applied to an attacking player who has positioned to receive a pass from the player in possession of the ball. Usually, but not always, the supporting player is behind the ball.|
|Playing for a team above your age level. It can be very valuable for a 14 year old to play with under 16's, but make sure you are being challenged and not overwhelmed. If you're spending a lot of time on the bench, you should play in your own age group.|
|Method of tackling in which a player extends his or her leg and kicks the ball away from an opponent.|
|Player or team having/in control of the ball.|
|A method of training players to perform a technique many times in rapid succession for a limited period of time.|
|Prime scoring area:|
|22% of all goals are from the area of the far post from the prime scoring area.|
|When you flick the ball over your own head (and sometimes the defender's) and trap it on the other side. This is often done with your heel and is very difficult to pull off in a game.|
|The goalkeeper's basic stance when the ball enters shooting range.|
|To draw back part of body upon contact with the ball. This absorbs the shock on impact.|
|A playing card-sized card that a referee holds up to signal a player's removal from the game; the player's team must play the rest of the game shorthanded; presented for violent behavior or multiple law infractions (two yellow cards = one red card).|
|The chief official makes all final decisions, acts as timekeeper, calls all fouls and starts and stops play.|
|Restarts (of the game):|
|Are from , corner kicks, drop balls, free kicks, goal kicks, penalty kick, place kick, and throw-in.|
|Roof a shot:|
|To hit a rocket that flies just just under the crossbar and into the net.|
|Run with the ball:|
|Movement with the ball without dribbling past an opponent.|
|A run by an attacker on the opposite side of a defender from the ball.|
|A run made side-to-side as opposed to end-to-end or diagonally.|
|Run, diagonal, inside-to-outside:|
|A run made by an attacker, diagonally, from a central position towards a touchline.|
|Run, diagonal, outside-to-inside:|
|A run made by an attacker, diagonally, from a flank (wing) position towards a central position.|
|The movement of an attacking player from a position behind the ball, outside the player with the ball and into a position ahead of the ball.|
|Defenders will be much less worried about attacker who run straight up and down the field than those who move across it. Running straight is not likely to trouble the defenders, who will be able to mark players and space as well as support one another.|
|Runs made usually by central forward players in opposite directions in order to create space in central attacking positions.|
|The act of a goalkeeper in blocking or stopping a shot that would have gone into the goal without his intervention.|
|To put the ball into the net for a goal; also, the tally of goals for each team playing in a game.|
|Players who score goals.|
|A situation where a team stands a good chance of scoring a goal.|
|To deliver a pass, usually with a good deal of accuracy, to an attacker in scoring position.|
|Serve a ball over the top:|
|To hit a long pass over the defense for you forwards to run onto.|
|A planned strategy that a team uses when a game is restarted with a free kick, penalty kick, corner kick, goal kick, throw-in or kickoff. 40% of all goals are from set plays (free kicks, corners and throw-ins).|
|Positioning yourself between the ball and an opponent attempting to gain possession. Its a skill you must master to maintain possession in a game.|
|Pads that strap onto a player's lower leg to protect the shins should he or she be kicked there.|
|Shooting on target (at the goal):|
|1. The average number of shots on
target for each game is 6.5 shots.
2. The average number of shots to score 1 goal is 3.5 shots on target.
3. 10 shots on target in a game gives an 86% chance of winning.
|When a player kicks the ball at the opponent's net in an attempt to score a goal.|
|A ball kicked or headed by a player at the opponent's net in an attempt to score a goal.|
|Minimal shoulder-to-shoulder contact by a defender against a ball carrier; the only contact allowed by the law unless a defender touches the ball first.|
|An attempt by a defender to redirect the ball slightly with his foot away from a ball carrier running in the same direction.|
|The application of the correct technique on demand.|
|An attempt by a defender to take the ball away from a ball carrier by sliding on the ground feet-first into the ball. Don't slide late, from behind or with your cleats up! (See: Red and Yellow Card).|
|Soccer games are won by taking advantage of space:|
|Before a team can take advantage of space, it must first create the space. Space is created either by a single player or by coordinated team plays. Space can be given away by mistakes of the defending team. Attacker must always plan on the basis that the defender will give away nothing.|
|Increasing the distance between, to the side, in front of, or behind opponents.|
|Utilizing effectively in attack the space already created.|
|A pass made by a player to a teammate running alongside him/her.|
|When a player takes the ball away from an opposing player.|
|The time the referee adds at the end of the 90 minutes regulation game. Often called injury time, this is a misnomer, as the referee can add minutes for other "stoppages" as well. Example: when someone is given a red/yellow card, debris on the field, or ball out of bounds for an inordinate amount of time.|
|A central marking defender. Plays in front of the sweeper and most likely is responsible for marking one of the center forwards on the opposing team.|
|A front-running central attacker.|
|Replacement of one player on the field with another player not on the field.|
|Support at a sufficiently wide angle to give the greatest possibility for passing the ball forward.|
|The last player in the defense besides the goalkeeper who patrols behind the other marking defenders and is responsible for "sweeping" away all the loose balls that get past their teammates.|
|A ball curling in towards the target, e.g. an in-swerve corner swerving towards the goal.|
|A ball curling away from the target, e.g. an out-swerve corner swerving away from the goal.|
|To pass the ball from one side of the field to the other, in one or two passes. By quickly changing the angle of attack, you can confuse the defense and take advantage of openings that will inevitably appear as the defenders scramble to adjust. This is an important weapon...works all the time!!!|
|A challenge using the feet, to win the ball from an opponent.|
|Taking the ball from your opponent by using the feet.|
|A term sometimes used to describe a cross-over movement where the player without the ball takes the ball from the dribbling player.|
|Taking players on:|
|Applied to dribbling past opponents.|
|A single player performance, e.g. a good push pass, chest trap, turning, jumping, etc.|
|The half of the field which a team defends.|
|The 8 points to spread out side-to-side:|
|1. The decision to spread out must (should)
be taken early (at the time the team gains possession)
and the team must (should) cover the ground as quickly as
2. Spreading out from side-to-side, means wide out to the side line (touch line).
3. Runs must (should) be made at different angles into spaces, but not losing sight of the ball.
4. Take up positions or spaces that makes it difficult for defender to mark and have support.
5. Attacking player must (should) be in positions or spaces that give them wider field of vision as possible to receive the ball.
6. The ball must (should) be played to a teammate that can take advantage of forward play; not because your teammate is in the biggest space.
7. A pass should be delayed until a teammate is in position to receive it and control it. A bad pass or poor control can destroy the space that has been created.
8. The team must take advantage of the space that has been created by forward play. If teammates insist on playing the ball square, or back, possession might be retained. Then, the initiative and the opportunity to take advantage of space will be lost.
|When a player uses his thigh to slow down and control a ball in the air.|
|Things to remember in defending:|
|Once the Defender is in position goal
side of the ball, the Defender must think about his/her
line of recovery, marking and challenging an opponent.
The Defender has 5 options.
1. Track an Attacker who is making a run to the back of the defense.
2. Occupy important space goal side of the ball.
3. Mark an Attacker in the area of the ball.
4. Cover a teammate who is challenging the Attacker with the ball.
5. Challenge the Attacker with the ball.
|Things to remember in passing, (best option first):|
|1. Pass the ball into space in back of
2. Pass the ball to feet of the most advanced attacker.
3. Pass the ball beyond at least one defender.
4. Pass the ball cross the field to switch the line of attack.
5. Pass the ball back to a supporting teammate.
|Things to remember on free kicks, corners and throw-ins:|
|1. Move in to prearranged marking
2. Mark close in the area of the ball.
3. Mark in back of the attacker.
4. Mark the space in front of the attacker.
5. The goalkeeper be in the right position.
6. Seal off as much space as possible inside the penalty area.
7. Player in the wall line up, tallest on the outside (in line with ball and post) and the shortest is on the inside.
|Things to remember to gain more set plays, (best option first):|
|1. Pass the ball to the back of the
2. Cross the ball to the back of the defense.
3. Dribbling in the attacking third of the field.
4. Pressuring defenders in the attacking third of the field.
5. Shooting at goal in the attacking third of the field.
|Thirds of the field:|
|Areas roughly 35 yards in length signifying the defending, the middle, and the attacking thirds of the field.|
|A pass sent to a teammate to get him/her the ball behind his defender; used to penetrate a line of defenders. This pass has to be made with perfect pace and accuracy so it beats the defense and allows attackers to collect it before the goalkeeper.|
|A type of restart where a player throws the ball from behind his head with two hands while standing with both feet on the ground behind a sideline; taken by a player opposite the team that last touched the ball before it went out of bounds across a sideline.|
|When two teams have scored the same number of goals in a match; if the game ends tied, it is a draw.|
|The job of the referee, who keeps track of the official time.|
|1) Side boundary of the field. 2) The side lines of the field.|
|Running behind another player.|
|When a player uses his body to slow down and control a moving ball, most often using his chest, thighs or feet.|
|1) One of nine offenses warranting a direct foul. 2) The act of stopping a ball and bringing the ball under your control.|
|Turning one's opponent:|
|Causing an opponent to turn, usually by playing the ball past him, or by moving past him, or by both.|
|Turning with the ball:|
|The act of receiving the ball when facing one's goal and turning, with the ball under control, to face the opponent's goal.|
|The loss of possession of the ball.|
|Rude behavior. Results in a foul.|
|A hooking or circular movement by the kicking leg where the leg is parallel with the ground when contact is made on the ball.|
|Any ball kicked by a player when it is off the ground. 17% of all goals are from volleys.|
Position of the goalkeeper's hands when fielding a chest-high ball.
|Give and go pass, or interpassing between two attacking players, where the player acting as the wall plays the ball first time and off at a similar angle at which the ball was received. The pass is usually made behind an opponent.|
|The player acting as the wall in a wall pass.|
|A line of 2 to 5 defending players pressed together shoulder-to-shoulder to protect their goal against a close free kick; creates a more difficult shot by reducing the amount of open goal area the kicker has to shoot at.|
|Exercises that warm the muscles and prepare the body for vigorous activity.|
|This is the side of the field where the ball is not. Players tend to migrate to the ball, which means the weak side will often have fewer defenders and more room to maneuver. See also switch field.|
|Weight of the pass:|
|A term quite frequently used to describe the pace of a pass.|
|Pulling your leg back as if to shoot or pass, but then dribbling instead. A very effective fake, especially if you set it up by blasting the ball at a defender's leg in the beginning of the game.|
|Wings or wingers:|
|The outside forwards who play to the sides of the strikers and whose primary task is to provide them with accurate crossing passes so they can shoot at the goal; often the fastest players and best dribblers on a team.|
|The international soccer competition held by FIFA every 4 years between the top professional teams in the world, pitting nation against nation; the most watched event in the world, attracting a television audience of over 3 billion viewers.|
|A playing card-sized card that a referee holds up to warn a player for dangerous or unsportsmanlike behavior; also called a caution; 2 yellow cards in one game earns a player an automatic red card, signaling his removal from the game.|
|A type of defense that assigns each defender to a particular area in front of or around his team's goal in which he is responsible for marking any attacker that enters.|